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Classification of Leather

Bleed:Ai??Caw leather, sheep skin, pig skin
Tanning method: Chrome tanned, vegetable tanned, semi-veg-tanned
Appearance: Full grain, drum dyed, embossed, corrected grain, suede
Application: Shoe upper, hand bag, glove, garment, upholstery

Testing of leather

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* By observation
* Physical test
* Chemical test
* Practical test
By observation: by appearance, watching, touching, smelling to identify colour, gradings defects and style of the leather

Leather defects:

*Ai??From animal: alive scars, tick marks, brand marks, insect, insert bits, growing wrinkles, scratches
*Ai??From slaughtering and conservation: bullet holes, blood vein marks, cut, decades, sun burn, frozen, pull damage, salt and heat damages
*Ai??From processing: loose, wrinkle, hair roots, machine damage, stains, fold mark, chemical damage, uneven dye, coat pilling, grain crack, layering

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Physical test

According to practical purposes and standard of different users, request of physical test may be different
*Ai??Tensile strength
* Stretch rate
* Tearing strength
* Stitch strength
* Grain break
* Light fastness
* Flexing resistance
* Abrasion fastness
* Rub fastness
* Moisture permeation
* Water resistance
* Frogging value
* Density
* Thickness
* Suppleness
* Shrinkage temperature
* Area
* pH
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Folding properties
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Rubbing fastness
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Light-resistant color
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
itschapala Tensile strength
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Bursting strength
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Coating stripping
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Tear strength
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Breathable performance
Leather Test PPT [Compatibility Mode]
Waterproof performance

Chemical test

*Ai??Chemical contents:
+neutral salts


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*Ai??Restricted chemicals:
+heavy metal like: Cr, Cd, Pd, Hg,
+form aldehyde
+azo dyes
+Cr IV

Variation of quality in leather

By manufactory
* Mechanical effects like by pressing, cutting, bending, pulling
* Attach to substances like water, adhesives, chemicals, heat
* Handwork: folding, touch with naked hand, transportation, storage
Caused in finishing procedures
* Changes in colour, gloss or fastness by contact with metal, plastic,Ai??fibre influencing each other or by storage, transportation, packing or displacing.

Change of quality on leather

Colour migration

*Cause: Changed according to environment influence phenomenon such as light, weather and oldering
* Phenomenon: Change of gloss or colour by means of light water heat and mechanical attack
* Solution: Refer to supplier, control quality before used, handle with care

Stain polluted Here,,,,,,,,,,,,, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here.

*Ai??Cause: Careless handling by transportation, storage or manufactory
*Ai??Phenomenon: Grease or dirt stain at edge or some other part of leather
*Ai??Solution: Find out causes and try to avoid


*Ai??Cause: Leather not well treated with anti-mold agent. In right conditions like temperature, humidity and environment with rich mold spores can grow easily.
*Ai??Phenomenon: Dots, spots or stains spreading gradually. Colour can be green, yellow, and brown. Blue to black with pungent smell.
*Ai??Solution: Try to clean with water and detergent or brushing if slightly molded. Enrich the anti-mold function. Storage in dry place.

Effect on other spare parts

*Ai??Cause: Affect to some other materials, change of quality by influence between each other.
*Ai??Phenomenon: Rusting with metals, stain with textile, plastic, polymers or wood, change of colour, suppleness, gloss or fastness.
*Ai??Solution: Precaution is important. Group small samples with the involved materials with leather together for some time. To observe any changes before practical work.

Change of mass

* Cause: Leather after packing, transportation and storage, there can be some change in area, suppleness or outlook which may not be the same as fleshly ex-factory.
* Phenomenon: Weigh or measurement changed, winkle or folding mark more obvious, touch, dry and hard.
* Solution: Can be recovered by means of dry milling, troggling or ironing.

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Perfect leather

*Ai??Colour, touch, suppleness, thickness, size and glossiness are qualified as requested
* Smooth and regular touching
*Ai??Even thickness all over area of one piece as well as the whole lot
*Ai??Full, round, fluffy, smooth, hard touch, regular, clear and distinguishedAi??grain pattern
*Ai??Streaming lay-out
*Ai??pleasant smell

Leather application

* Structures from different animals.

+Ai??Cow: bigger area, good stretch, multi-properties
+Ai??Baby calf: fine grain, tight fibre
+Ai??Buffalo: rough fibre, thick, strong, rugged grain
+Ai??Goat: tight fibre, obvious grain pattern
+Ai??Sheep: looser and bulky fibre, light
+Ai??Pig: tight fibre, peat structure, rough grain


*Ai??Different tanning

+ Chrome tanned: soft, light, more variations
+ Vegetable tanned: firm, heavy, full
+ Aldehyde and oil tanned: light, washable, soft
+ Combination tanned: nature can be adjusted according to combinationAi??of formula


* Different parts

+ Grain: fine, smooth
+ Split: rough surface
+ Buffed grain (nubuk): suede appearance
+ Butt: firm and even
+ Belly: loose and empty
+ Shoulder: hard and rough

Storage of leather

* Leather contains 12%-15% of moisture. If it is too dry, hand touch will be uncomfortable and brittle. If it is too wet, it will cause moulding and colour worn out. Better stored in good air ventilated room with 15-25Ai??c and 65%-70% relative humidity, no direct contact with light, flat and spread placed, not in too high or heavy piles.


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